Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Simple Microphone Preamplifier

This simple microphone preamplifier circuit can use between your microphone and stereo amplifier. This amplifier microphone suitable for use with normal home stereo amplifier line/CD/aux/tape inputs. This microphone preamplifier can take both dynamic and electret microphone inputs (preamplifier provides power foe electret microphone elements).

This circuit idea is to keep the design as simple as possible to be easy to build. That was my goal when I needed a simple external microphone preamplifier for my mixer. The performance of the circuit is nothing superior but can be used with many not so serious projects. 

C1,C2,C3,C4         10uF
C5                          100uF
R1                          4.7k
R2                          220k
R3                          2.2k
R4                          120ohm
led                           1 red
Q1                           BC547B 
dynamic mic,input pin,output pin            

Microphone Preamplifier Circuit Features
  • Brief description of operation: Simple microphone preamplifier
  • Circuit protection: No special protection circuits used
  • Circuit complexity: Very simple one transistor circuit
  • Circuit performance: Amplification 35 dB, flat frequency response from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, quite poor distortion performance figures, a little bit noisy
  • Availability of components: Uses common and easily available components
  • Design testing: I have built few microphone preamplifiers based on this circuit and theu have worked without problems.
  • Applications: Interface dynamic or electret microphone to a line level audio input in HIFI amplifier or computer soundcard.
  • Power supply: 9V battery, takes less than 10 mA current
  • Estimated component cost: Electronics components than $10
  • Safety considerations: No special electrical safety considerations.

The circuit is a simple one transistor amplifier with amplification of about 30-40 dB (depends on transitor, temperature and voltage). The dynamic mic input is just a simple one transistor amplifier circuit with nothing special in it. LED D1 is in the circuitto show that the circuit operates. The voltage drop caused by LED (around 1.8V for RED led) has been taten in account when designing the amplifier circuit built around Q1. Resistor R4 and capacitor C5 make a filter to filter out possible noise from battery or other power source which is used to feed this circuit. Capacitors C1, C2 and C3 are used to block the DC bias on Q1 base to flow out of microphone input to microphone (the polarity of all capactors is straigh line = + and curved line = -).

Electret microphone input has a resistor R1 fo feeding current through electret microphone capsule when it is connected to the electret microphone input. Electret microphone needs some current (about 1 mA) flowing through it to operate, because there is a small amplifier circuit inside the microphone capsule. This circuit is suitable for all typical cheap electret capsules which available from any electronic component shop. Because electret microphones have higher signal level output, it is quite easy to overdrive the amplifier when you shout to electret microphone.

The circuit is bet to build to a small metal box like in the picture above. Put the 9V battery inside the case too. Battery power and metal box keep external noise and interference sources away. I used standard 6.3 mm jack for dynamic microphone and 3.5 mm mono jack for electret micrphone both installed to from, panel of the metal box. The LED and power switches are also installed to front panel.


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